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Home > Corporate Clients  >  Health and Safety Offerings  >  Forensic Urine Chromatography

Forensic Urine Chromatography

Urine Toxicology Screening by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Urine Toxicology Screen provided by Dynacare incorporates gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the qualitative identification of >100 different drugs and drug metabolites.  Analyte identification is based on mass fragment identification within a defined GC-MS spectral library.
 
We note that the ability to detect any drug or metabolite in urine is dependent on many factors, including:
  • the dose ingested
  • the analytical method used
  • the sensitivity of the method used for the analyte of interest
  • the individual’s metabolic variability - genetic factors, age, gender, etc.
  • the individual’s physical condition – most notably kidney and liver disease
  • the amount of fluid ingested
  • the method and frequency of dosing
  • the time the drug was ingested relative to the time the urine sample was collected
 The GC-MS Urine Toxicology screen provided by Dynacare can detect use of the specific drug and drug metabolites listed in the tables below.
 
It will not identify every licit and/or illicit drug that might be in a urine sample.
 
If the drug of interest is not listed in the tables below it will not be detected by this screen, at this time.
 
If a listed analyte was detected in the urine the specimen that analyte will be reported as POSITIVE. 
 
Positive result indicates that the analyte is present in the customer’s urine at a minimum concentration above its screening threshold.  A positive result does not indicate the analytes route of administration, ingested dose, concentration in the urine or the customer’s level of intoxication.
 
A negative result may not necessarily mean that the urine is drug-free. Negative results can obtained when the drug is present in the urine, but at a concentration that is below the sensitivity of the method.  This is especially true for benzodiazepine and barbiturate drugs, as this screening method has relativity poor sensitivity for these drug classes.  Negative results may also be obtained if the specific analyte of interest is not included in the GC-MS Urine Toxicology screen provided by Dynacare.
 
­Table 1: Summary of the different drugs and drug metabolites included within the Dynacare GC-MS Urine Toxicology Screen
 
ANAESTHETICS ANTICONVULSANTS ANTIDEPRESSANTS ANTIHISTAMINES ANTIPSYCHOTICS
Ketamine
Lidocaine
Carbamazepine
Gabapentin
Topiramate
Amitryptyline
Bupropion
Citalopram
Clomipramine
Desipramine
Doxepin
Fluoxetine
Fluvoxamine
Imipramine
Mirtrazapine
Nortriptyline
Paroxetine
Sertraline
Trazodone
Trimipramine
Venlafaxine
Brompheniramine
Chloropheniramine
Diphenhydramine
Doxylamine
Hydroxyzine
Pheniramine
Pyrilamine
Chlorpromazine
Clozapine
Methotrimeprazine
Olanzapine
Quetiapine
 
BARBITURATES BENZODIAZEPINES CARDIAC DRUGS COCAINE HALLUCINOGENS
Amobarbital Alprazolam Acebutolol Benzoylecgonine Mescaline
Butabarbital Bromazepam Alpranolol Cocaethylene Phencyclidine
Butalbital Chlorodiazepoxide Atenolol Cocaine  
Pentobarbital Clobazam Betaxolol Levamisole  
Phenobarbital Clonazepam Bisoprolol    
Secobarbital Diazepam Carvedilol    
  Estazolam Clopidogrel    
  Flurazepam Diltiazem    
  Lorazepam Enalapril    
  Midazolam Labetolol    
  Nitrazepam Metoprolol    
  Nordiazepam Nadolol    
  Oxazepam Perindopril    
  Prazepam Pindolol    
  Temazepam Propranolol    
  Triazolam Sotalol    
    Timolol    
    Verapamil    
 
OPIOIDS NON-BENZODIAZEPINE
SEDATIVES
STIMULANTS OTHER
6-β-Naltrexol
Buprenorphine
Butorphanol
Codeine
Dihydrocodeine
Dihydromorphine
EDDP
EDMP
Fentanyl
Hydrocodone
Hydromorphone
Meperidine
Methadone
Morphine
Oxycodone
Oxymorphone
Pentazocine
Propoxyphene
Tramadol
Zopiclone Amphetamine
Benzylpiperazine
Ephedrine/
Pseudoephedrine
MDA
MDEA
MDMA
Methamphetamine
Methylphenidate
Phentermine
Theobromine
Theophylline
Xylometazoline
Atomoxetine
Chloroquine
Dextromethorphan
Metoclopramide
Quinidine
Quinine
Tetrahydrozoline

Acronyms:  EDDP, 2‐ethylidene‐1,5‐dimethyl‐2,2‐diphenylpyrrolidine; EDMP, 2‐ethylidene‐1,5‐methyl‐2,2‐diphenylpyrrolidine;
MDA, methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDEA, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; MDMA, methylenedioxymethamphetamine